[RAMAGE]  /ʁa.maʒ/ masculin 

1. Chant des petits oiseaux qui se tiennent dans les rameaux.

"Que vous êtes joli ! que vous me semblez beau !
Sans mentir, si votre ramage se rapporte à votre plumage,
vous êtes le Phénix des hôtes de ces bois."
(Jean de La FontaineLe Corbeau et le Renard)

2. Discours dénué de sens.

"Pour vous soulager un peu de ce ramage barbare des grammaires…" (Diderot)

Source: wiktionary

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Causation has long been something of a mystery, bedeviling philosophers and scientists down through the ages.What exactly is it?How can it be measured — that is, can we assess the strength of the relationship between a cause and its effect?What does an observed association between factors — a correlation — tell us about a possible causal relationship?How do multiple factors or causes jointly influence outcomes?And does causation even exist “in the world,” as it were, or is it merely a habit of our minds, a connection we draw between two events we have observed in succession many times, as Hume famously argued?The rich philosophical literature on causation is a testament to the struggle of thinkers throughout history to develop satisfactory answers to these questions.Likewise, scientists have long wrestled with problems of causation in the face of numerous practical and theoretical impediments. Yet when speaking of causation, we usually take for granted some notion of what it is and how we are able to assess it.We do...

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